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Vijayabāhu

1. Vijayabāhu.– King of Sri Lanka (Vijayabāhu I, 1059‑1114 A.C.). His earlier name was Kitti; his parents were Moggallāna and Lokitā (Cv.lvii.42 f; but see Cv.Trs.i.201, n.1), and from his thirtieth year he lived in Mūlasālā. Later, without the knowledge of his parents, he left home, defeated the general Loka, and became Adipāda of Malaya after bringing this province under his power. At the age of sixteen he defeated Kassapa, chief of the Kesadhātus, and became ruler of Rohaṇa as well, assuming the title of Yuvarāja and the name of Vijayabāhu. At this time the Coḷā were in possession of the government at Pulatthipura, and they made efforts to stem the advance of Vijayabāhu. They were at first successful, owing to the disunion among the Singhalese themselves, but Vijayabāhu conquered the Coḷa armies near Palutthapabbata and marched to Pulatthipura. He was helped by forces sent by the king of Rāmañña, to whom he sent an embassy with various presents. He had, however, to bide his time, and retreated to Vātagiri. From there he went, in due course, to Mahānāgahula, his officers having, in the meantime, crushed all opposition in Dakkhiṇadesa and captured the province of Anurādhapura and the district round Mahātiṭṭha. When he felt the right moment had arrived, Vijayabāhu marched once more to Pulatthipura and captured it after a siege of one and a half months. From there he advanced to Anurādhapura, spent three months in the city and returned to Pulatthipura. This was fifteen years after he became Yuvarāja. In the eighteenth year he crowned himself king, under the title of Sirisaṅghabodhi, making his younger brother Vīrabāhu Yuvarāja and governor of Dakkhiṇadesa, and his other brother, Jayabāhu, Adipāda and governor of Rohaṇa. The king had several queens, among whom was Līlāvatī, a Coḷa princess and daughter of Jagatīpāla; by her he had a daughter Yasodharā. Another of his queens was a Kāliṅga princess, Tilokasundarī, by whom he had five daughters — Subhaddā, Sumittā, Lokanāthā, Ratanāvalī and Rūpavatī — and a son called Vikkamabāhu. Vijayabāhu gave his younger sister, Mittā, in marriage to the king of Paṇḍu, refusing an offer of marriage made by the Coḷa king.

When peace had been established, Vijayabāhu sent messengers to Anuruddha, king of Rāmañña, and fetched monks from that country to help in the reformation of the Saṅgha in Sri Lanka. He gave over the whole district of Āḷisāra for the use of the monks and built many vihāras. He translated the Dhammasaṅgaṇī and held an annual Dandissara offering. He also had the Tipiṭaka copied, and presented the copies to various monks. Because the Singhalese envoys sent to Kannāta were insulted and maimed, the king prepared to send a punitive expedition to Coḷa, but the Velakkāra troops revolted, captured Mittā and her children, and burned the king’s palace. The king was forced to retreat to Dakkhiṇadesa but, with the help of Vīrabāhu, he defeated the rebels. In the forty fifth year of his reign he took an army to Coḷa and stopped at a seaport in that country; but as the Coḷa king refused to accept his challenge to fight, he returned to his own country. He repaired many tanks and restored many vihāras in various parts of the country. He provided facilities for pilgrims journeying to Samantakūṭa, and patronized the Lābhavāsī and the Vantajīvaka monks. He ruled for fifty-five years. Vīrabāhu died before him, and he made Jayabāhu Uparāja in his place. For details of Vijayabāhu’s reign, see Cv. chaps. lviii lx.

2. Vijayabāhu.– Sister’s son of Parakkamabāhu I and king of Sri Lanka (Vijayabāhu II, 1186‑87 A.C.). He succeeded his uncle. Among his acts was the grant of an amnesty to all those imprisoned by Parakkamabāhu I, and the dispatch of an embassy to the king of Arimaddana with a letter in Pāḷi, composed by himself. He was a good king, but was slain at the end of one year’s reign by Mahinda (afterwards Mahinda VI). His viceroy was Kittinissaṅka. Cv.lxxx.1‑18.

3. Vijayabāhu.– King of Sri Lanka (Vijayabāhu III, 1232‑36 A.C.). He claimed descent from King Sirisaṅghabodhi I and was lord of the Vannī. He found the government of Sri Lanka in the hands of the Damiḷā, and, after defeating them, he established the seat of government in Jambuddoni. He sent for the monks, who, with Vācissara at their head, had left Sri Lanka during the preceding disturbed period and had deposited the Buddha’s almsbowl and Tooth Relic in the rock fortress at Billasela. The king did much for the reform of the priesthood and built various monasteries, chief of which was the Vijayasundarārāma and the Vijayabāhu-vihāra. He had two sons, Parakkamabāhu and Bhuvanekabāhu. He appointed the elder Saṅgharakkhita as head of the Order in Sri Lanka. Cv.lxxxi.10 ff.

4. Vijayabāhu.– King of Sri Lanka (Vijayabāhu IV, 1271‑72 A.C.). He was the eldest of the five sons of Parakkamabāhu II, his brothers being Bhuvanekabāhu, Tibhuvanamalla, Parakkamabāhu and Jayabāhu. With the consent of the monks, Parakkamabāhu II handed over the government, before his death, to Vijayabāhu, who was evidently very popular, and was known among his subjects as a Bodhisatta. (See, e.g., Cv.lxxxviii.35). He restored Pulatthipura and built and renovated numerous monasteries, among them the vihāra at Titthagāma. During his reign, Candabhānu invaded Sri Lanka, but was defeated by the king with the help of his Adipāda, Vīrabāhu. Vijayabāhu built a city near Subhagiri and made it his seat of government. He restored the Ratanāvalī-cetiya and gave Anurādhapura into the charge of the Vannī chiefs. Later, when Vīrabāhu had completely restored Pulatthipura, the king was consecrated there in the presence of his father, who came over from Jambuddoni. Then, at the desire of his father, he held, on the Mahāvāḷukagaṅgā, at Sahassatittha, a festival for admission into the Order. The celebrations lasted a fortnight, and the king conferred on the monks various ranks, such as mahāsāmipāda, mūlatherapāda, pariveṇathera, etc. Two years after the death of Parakkamabāhu, Vijayabāhu was slain by a treacherous general, named Mitta. For details regarding Vijayabāhu, see Cv.lxxxvii.14 xc.1.

Vijayabāhu’s son was Parakkamabāhu III. Cv.xc.48.

5. Vijayabāhu.– King of Sri Lanka (Vijayabāhu V). He succeeded Vannibhuvanekabāhu, and was himself succeeded by Bhuvanekabāhu IV. Cv.xc.105; he was among the successors of Parakkamabāhu IV, and reigned somewhere between 1302 and 1346 A.C.

6. Vijayabāhu.– King of Sri Lanka (Vijayabāhu VI). He was one of the successors of Parakkamabāhu VI. His immediate predecessor was Vīraparakkamabāhu. Cv.xcii.4; his reign was somewhere between 1405 and 1411 A.C.

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