In the texts, a contrast is often drawn between the outlying districts (Paccantajanapada) and the middle region of India (Majjhimadesa).¹ In the latter the fortunate ones are born, and it is a great disadvantage to be born outside it; for, then, the possibilities of hearing of the Buddha and his teaching become remote (e.g., DhA.iii.248, 489; KhA.133).
The boundaries of the Majjhimadesa are given in several places, and the Paccantajanapada, lies beyond these boundaries. They are: in the east (puratthimāya disāya), Gajaṅgala (v.l. Kajaṅgala) and Mahāsālā; in the south-
The Vinaya rules were relaxed in the case of those who lived in the Paccantajanapada, where it is said that the Buddha never spent a night. MA.ii.982.
¹ See India in the Time of the Buddha for a map.